Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Feb. 03, 2024
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents at February 3, 2024 and January 28, 2023 includes $304.2 million and $317.2 million, respectively, of investments primarily in money market securities which are valued at cost, which approximates fair value. In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 305 “Cash and Cash Equivalents,” we consider all highly-liquid debt instruments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The majority of payments due from financial institutions for the settlement of debit card and credit card transactions process within three business days, and therefore are classified as cash and cash equivalents.
Merchandise Inventories
In accordance with ASC Topic 330 “Inventory,” merchandise inventories at our distribution centers are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, determined on a weighted-average cost basis. Cost is assigned to store inventories using the retail inventory method on a weighted-average basis. Under the retail inventory method, the valuation of inventories at cost and the resulting gross margins are computed by applying a calculated cost-to-retail ratio to the retail value of inventories.
Costs directly associated with warehousing and distribution are capitalized as merchandise inventories. Total warehousing and distribution costs capitalized into inventory amounted to $299.8 million and $298.6 million at February 3, 2024 and January 28, 2023, respectively.
Property, Plant and Equipment
In accordance with ASC Topic 360 “Property, Plant and Equipment,” property, plant and equipment are stated at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets as follows:
39 to 40 years
Building improvements
20 years
Furniture, fixtures and equipment, software
3 to 15 years
Leasehold improvements
Shorter of remaining lease term or related asset life
Depreciation is included in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations, with the exception of depreciation related to our merchandising and distribution-related assets which are included in “Cost of sales” in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Capitalized Interest
We capitalize interest on borrowed funds during the construction of certain property and equipment based on our weighted average borrowing rates in place while the projects are in progress. We capitalized $5.9 million, $3.8 million and $1.1 million of interest costs in the years ended February 3, 2024, January 28, 2023 and January 29, 2022, respectively.
Insurance Reserves and Restricted Cash
We utilize a combination of insurance and self-insurance programs, including a wholly-owned captive insurance entity, to provide for the potential liabilities for certain risks, including workers’ compensation, general liability and auto. Liabilities associated with the risks that are retained by us are not discounted and are estimated, in part, by considering claims experience, exposure and severity factors, historical loss development factors, and other actuarial assumptions. Our self-insurance liabilities associated with workers’ compensation, general liability and auto are recorded within “Other current liabilities” and “Other liabilities” in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets and amounted to $363.5 million and $318.2 million at February 3, 2024 and January 28, 2023, respectively.
Dollar Tree Insurance, Inc., a South Carolina-based wholly-owned captive insurance subsidiary of ours, charges the operating subsidiary companies premiums to insure the retained workers’ compensation, general liability and auto exposures. Pursuant to South Carolina insurance regulations, Dollar Tree Insurance, Inc. maintains certain levels of cash and cash equivalents related to its self-insured exposures.
We also maintain certain cash balances related to our insurance programs which are held in trust and restricted as to withdrawal or use. These amounts are reflected in “Restricted cash” in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets and amounted to $72.3 million and $68.5 million at February 3, 2024 and January 28, 2023, respectively.
Lease Accounting
Our lease portfolio primarily consists of leases for our retail store locations, vehicles and trailers, as well as distribution center space and equipment. In accordance with ASC Topic 842 “Leases,” we determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception by evaluating whether the arrangement conveys the right to use an identified asset and whether we obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from and have the ability to direct the use of the asset. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. We recognize expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For leases with an initial term in excess of 12 months, we determine the initial classification and measurement of the right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities at the lease commencement date and thereafter if modified. ROU assets represent our right to control the underlying assets under lease, over the contractual term. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets based on the present value of future minimum lease payments to be made over the lease term.
As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate in determining the present value of future lease payments. Inputs to the calculation of our incremental borrowing rate include the valuations and yields of our outstanding senior notes and their credit spreads over comparable U.S. Treasury rates, adjusted to a collateralized basis by estimating the credit spread improvement that would result from an upgrade of one ratings classification. Most leases include one or more options to renew and the exercise of renewal options is at our sole discretion. We do not include renewal options in our determination of the lease term unless the renewals are deemed to be reasonably certain. Operating lease expense for lease payments not yet paid is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The operating lease ROU asset is reduced by lease incentives, which has the effect of lowering the operating lease expense. Operating lease ROU assets are periodically reviewed for impairment losses. We use the long-lived assets impairment guidance in ASC Subtopic 360-10 “Property, Plant, and Equipment - Overall,” to determine whether an ROU asset is impaired, and if so, the amount of the impairment loss to recognize.
We have real estate leases that typically include payments related to non-lease components, such as common area maintenance, as well as payments for real estate taxes and insurance which are not considered components of the lease. These payments are generally variable and based on actual costs incurred by the lessor. These costs are expensed as incurred as variable lease costs and excluded for the purpose of calculating the ROU asset and lease liability. A smaller number of real estate leases contain fixed payments for common area maintenance, real estate taxes and insurance. These fixed payments are considered part of the lease payment and included in the ROU asset and lease liability. In addition, certain of our lease agreements include rental payments based on a percentage of retail sales over contractual levels and others include rental payments adjusted periodically for inflation. These payments are expensed as incurred as variable lease costs. Our lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive financial covenants.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets and Long-Lived Assets to be Disposed of
In accordance with ASC Topic 360, we review our long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by comparing the carrying amount of an asset to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets based on discounted cash flows or other readily available evidence of fair value, if any. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
In fiscal 2023, fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021, we recorded charges of $511.5 million, $39.9 million and $4.4 million, respectively, to write down certain assets, including $358.7 million, $20.1 million and $3.9 million in fiscal 2023, fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021, respectively, to write down operating lease ROU assets. The fiscal 2023 impairment charges include $152.2 million of store asset impairment charges and $351.7 million of operating lease ROU asset impairment charges recorded in connection with the store portfolio optimization review as discussed further in Note 16. Fiscal 2022 includes $14.0 million for West Memphis distribution center asset impairments. These charges are recorded as a component of “Selling, general and administrative expenses” in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Goodwill and Nonamortizing Intangible Assets
Goodwill and nonamortizing intangible assets, including the Family Dollar trade name, are not amortized, but rather tested for impairment at least annually. In addition, goodwill and nonamortizing intangible assets are tested on an interim basis if an event or circumstance indicates that it is more likely than not that an impairment loss has been incurred. For both goodwill and nonamortizing intangible assets, we have the option to initially perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that an impairment exists. Alternatively, we may bypass the qualitative assessment in any given year and proceed directly to performing the quantitative impairment test. We perform our annual impairment testing of goodwill and nonamortizing intangible assets during the fourth quarter of each year. Our reporting units are determined in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 350, “Intangibles - Goodwill and Other.”
When a quantitative impairment test is performed for the Family Dollar trade name, we compare the fair value, based on an income approach using the relief-from-royalty method, to its carrying value. If the carrying value of the asset exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess.
Subsequent to the evaluation of the Family Dollar trade name for impairment, we evaluate the Family Dollar goodwill for impairment. When a quantitative test is performed, we estimate the fair value of the reporting unit using a combination of a market multiple method and a discounted cash flow method. We recognize goodwill impairment for the amount by which the reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its estimated fair value, not to exceed the total carrying amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023, we recorded a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $1,069.0 million and a non-cash trade name impairment charge of $950.0 million, both related to the Family Dollar reporting unit. Refer to Note 15 for additional information on the results of the trade name and goodwill impairment tests.
Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606 "Revenue from Contracts with Customers." Net sales consist of the net sales of merchandise in our stores. Revenue transactions associated with the sale of merchandise comprise a single performance obligation, which consists of the sale of products to customers. Revenue is recognized when we satisfy our performance obligations by transferring control of promised products to our customers, which occurs at a point in time. Sales taxes imposed on our revenues from product sales are presented on a net basis in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. Gift cards that we issue to customers are recorded as contract liabilities until they are redeemed, at which point revenue is recognized. We record reductions to revenue for discounts and estimated customer returns. Historically, our customer returns have not been material.
Cost of Sales
We include the cost of merchandise, warehousing and distribution costs, and certain occupancy costs in cost of sales.
Vendor Allowances
We receive vendor support in the form of cash payments or allowances through a variety of reimbursements such as purchase discounts, cooperative advertising, markdowns, scandowns and volume rebates. We have agreements with vendors setting forth the specific conditions for each allowance or payment. In accordance with ASC Subtopic 705-20 “Accounting for Consideration Received from a Vendor,” we either recognize the allowance as a reduction of current costs or defer the payment over the period the related merchandise is sold. If the payment is a reimbursement for costs incurred, it is offset against those related costs; otherwise, it is treated as a reduction to the cost of merchandise.
Pre-Opening Costs
We capitalize certain internal labor costs related to new, expanded, renovated, relocated and re-bannered stores after the project becomes probable and only when the costs are directly attributable to the preparation of the store-related assets for their intended use. We expense all other pre-opening costs related to our stores and distribution centers, as incurred.
Advertising Costs
We expense advertising costs as they are incurred and they are included in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” within the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. Advertising costs, net of cooperative advertising recoveries from vendors, were $109.6 million, $99.5 million and $93.9 million in fiscal 2023, fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021, respectively.
Income Taxes
In accordance with ASC Topic 740 “Income Taxes,” income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date of such change. Deferred tax assets are reduced by valuation allowances when necessary. Assessing whether deferred tax assets are realizable requires significant judgment. We consider all available positive and negative evidence, including historical operating performance and expectations of future operating performance. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is often dependent upon future taxable income and therefore can be uncertain. To the extent we believe it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the asset will not be realized, valuation allowances are established against our deferred tax assets, which increase income tax expense in the period when such a determination is made. Income taxes include the largest amount of tax benefit for an uncertain tax position that is more likely than not to be sustained upon audit based on the technical merits of the tax position. Settlements with tax authorities, the expiration of statutes of limitations for particular tax positions or obtaining new information on particular tax positions may cause a change to the effective tax rate.
We have made the policy election to record any liability associated with Global Intangible Low Tax Income ("GILTI") in the period in which it is incurred.
We include interest and penalties in the provision for income tax expense and income taxes payable. We do not provide for any penalties associated with tax contingencies unless they are considered probable of assessment.
Stock-Based Compensation
We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC Topic 718 “Compensation - Stock Compensation,” which requires all stock-based compensation awards granted to be measured at fair value and recognized as an expense in the financial statements over the service period. In addition, this guidance requires that excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation awards be reflected as operating cash flows. We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair market value of stock option awards and grant date fair value for restricted stock units. We use the "simplified method" to estimate the expected life of options, as permitted by accounting guidance. The "simplified method" calculates the expected life of a stock option equal to the time from grant to the midpoint between the vesting date and contractual term, taking into account all vesting tranches. The risk-free interest rate is based on the yield for the U.S. Treasury bill with a maturity equal to the expected life of the stock option. Expected volatility is based on our historical average. Compensation expense is recognized net of forfeitures on a straight-line basis over the total vesting period, which is the implied requisite service period, or a shorter period based on the retirement eligibility of the grantee. Compensation expense for performance-based awards is recorded over the implied requisite service period when achievement of the performance target is deemed probable. We issue new shares upon exercise of stock options and upon vesting of restricted stock units.
Total stock-based compensation expense for fiscal 2023, fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021 was $96.7 million, $110.4 million and $79.9 million, respectively. Refer to Note 10 for further details on stock-based compensation.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
In accordance with ASC Topic 260 “Earnings Per Share,” basic net income (loss) per share has been computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding. Diluted net income (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur assuming the inclusion of dilutive potential shares and has been computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares and dilutive potential shares outstanding. Dilutive potential shares include all outstanding stock options and unvested restricted stock units after applying the treasury stock method.
Foreign Currency
The functional currencies of certain of our international subsidiaries are the local currencies of the countries in which the subsidiaries are located. In accordance with ASC Topic 830 “Foreign Currency Matters,” foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect at the consolidated balance sheet date. Results of operations and cash flows are translated using the average exchange rates throughout the period. Capital accounts are translated at historical foreign currency exchange rates. The effect of exchange rate fluctuations on translation of assets and liabilities is included as a component of shareholders’ equity in accumulated other comprehensive loss. Adjustments that arise from foreign currency exchange rate changes on transactions, primarily driven by intercompany transactions, denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in “Other expense, net” in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. These adjustments have not historically been significant.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In September 2022, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2022-04 "Liabilities - Supplier Finance Programs (Subtopic 405-50)" ("ASU 2022-04") which requires entities to disclose the key terms of supplier finance programs used in connection with the purchase of goods and services along with information about their obligations under these programs, including a rollforward of those obligations. We adopted ASU 2022-04 for fiscal 2023 on a retrospective basis, except for the amendments relating to the rollforward requirement, which are required to be adopted for fiscal 2024 on a prospective basis. The adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. Refer to Note 14 for a discussion of our supply chain finance program.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07 “Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures” (“ASU 2023-07”) which requires disclosure of incremental segment information on an annual and interim basis, including enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses that are regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) and included within each reported measure of segment profit or loss. ASU 2023-07 also requires entities to disclose the title and position of the CODM and explain how the CODM uses the reported measures of segment profit or loss in assessing performance and allocating resources. Further, it requires that all annual disclosures about a reportable segment’s profit or loss and assets currently required by Topic 280 be provided in interim periods. ASU 2023-07 is effective on a retrospective basis for annual periods beginning in fiscal 2024 and for interim periods beginning in fiscal 2025. We are currently evaluating the impact of this standard to our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09 “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures” (“ASU 2023-09”) which requires entities to disclose specific categories and greater disaggregation of information in the effective tax rate reconciliation, as well as disaggregated disclosure of income taxes paid, pretax income and income tax expense by jurisdiction. The standard also removes certain disclosure requirements that currently exist under Topic 740. ASU 2023-09 is effective on a prospective basis for annual periods beginning in fiscal 2025, with retrospective application permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this standard to our consolidated financial statements.